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Afghans are not the kind of folk who are yearning for peace, prosperity, and reconciliation. In fact, they see unrest, chaos and struggle as a normal healthy way of life. Macnaghten (and a hundred and seventy years later, the ‘coalition of the willing’) had this knowledge but refused to see it.

Instead they have all tried to force upon the Afghans the western thought processes and beliefs on democracy and human rights which they mistakenly assumed (and continue to assume) are universal……